Tuesday, February 18, 2003

Sendmail Quick Reference

Tips and Tricks for Sendmail

mailq Prints the mail queue’s contents, same as /usr/lib/sendmail bp

newaliases Rebuilds the aliases database file, same as /usr/lib/sendmail bi

hoststat Prints persistent host status info, same as /usr/lib/sendmail -bh

purgestat Purges (zeroes) persistent host status info, same as /usr/lib/sendmail -bH

smtpd Runs in daemon mode, same as /usr/lib/sendmail bd q30

mailq OmaxQueueRunSize=1 - Quickly print the total number of messages within mail queue

/usr/lib/sendmail q Otimeout.queuereturn=99d - Purges the mail queue without timing out any messages. Useful if the mail server has been down longer than the queuereturn value set in the cf.

/usr/lib/sendmail bv foolist grep v deliverable - Prints only undeliverable addresses from in the mail list foolist. Great for use in a shell script to remove badd addresses from a mailing list.

Command Line Switches

-B 7bit - Causes sendmail to clear the high-bit of every incoming byte.

-B 8bitmime Causes sendmail to preserve the high-bit or every incoming byte.

-ba Uses ARPAnet/Grey-Book protocols to transfer mail.

-bD Runs as daemon, like bd, but does not fork and does not detach from controlling terminal.

-bd Runs as daemon, forks and detaches.

-bH - Purges (zeroes) persistent host status info.

-bh - Prints persistent host status info.

-bi - Initializes the aliases database.

-bm Causes sendmail to read and send message (this is the default)

-bp Prints the contents of the mail queue.

-bs Runs sendmail on standard I/O.

-bt Runs sendmail in rule testing mode.

- Verifies address.

-C /tmp/different.cf Uses different.cf as its configuration file.

-c - Sets HoldExpensive option to true.

-d - set debug mode.

-d0 Shows general config
-d0.1 Prints version
-d.04 Prints local hostname and any aliases for it.
-d0.15 Prints the list of delivery agents declared
-d0.20 Prints address of each network interface
-d8 Traces most DNS lookups
-d8.1 Prints failure of low level MX searches.
-d8.2 Prints calls to getcanonname
-d8.3 - Traces dropped local hostnames
-d8.5 Shows hostnames tried in getcanonname
-d8.8 Shows when MX lookups return the wrong type.
-d11 Traces delivery agent calls
-d11.1 Traces arguments passed to the delivery agent
-d11.2 - Prints the user ID that the delivery agent is invoked as
-d21 Traces rewriting of addresses
-d21.1- Traces general ruleset rewriting
-d21.2 Traces use of $& macro
-d21.3 Shows $> subroutines called
-d21.4 Displays result of rewrite
-d21.15 Shows $digit replacement
-d21.35 shows token by token LHS matching
-d27 Traces aliasing
-d27.1 Traces general aliasing
-d27.2 Traces :include: files, alias self-references, and errors on home
-d27.3 Traces the ~/.forward path and the alias wait
-d27.4 Prints "not safe" when a file is unsafe to trust
-d27.9 Shows uid/gid changes when reading :include: files
-d35 Traces macros
-d35.9 shows macro values as they are defined
-d35.14 Shows macro names being converted to integer id’s
-d35.24 Shows macro expansion
-d37 Traces options and class macros
-d37.1 Traces the setting of options
-d37.8 Traces the adding of words to a class
-d41 Traces the queue
-d41.1 Traces queue ordering
-d41.2 Shows failure to open qf files
-d41.49 Shows skipped queue files
-d41.50 Show every file in queue
-F - Set senders full name

- Set senders address

-h - Set minimum hop count

-i Set IgnoreDots option to true

-M - Set macro

-N - Set return DNS notify information

never Never return the info
success Return on successful delivery
failure Return on failure
delay Return on delayed delivery
-n Supresses aliasing

-O - Set an option (long name)

-o Set an option (short name)

-pUUCP:test Sets protocol in $r macro to UUCP and $s macro to test

-q30m Sets queue processing to every 30 min

-qR@here.com Processes the queue once delivering only mail to @here.com

-R hdrs bounces only the headers

-R full Bounces headers and body

-s Sets SaveFromLine option to true

-T 5d Sets Timeout.queuereturn option to 5 days

-t Gathers a list of recipients from messages headers

-U make this the initial MUA to MTA submission

-V test123456 Sets the DSN ENVID string to test123456

-v Runs sendmail in verbose mode

-X /var/tmp/trace.mail Logs both sides of smtp transactions to trace.mail file.

Rule Testing Mode (/usr/lib/sendmail bt)

? Prints help

.DrUUCP Defines macro r as UUCP

=S5 Prints the contents of ruleset 5

=M Displays list of delivery agents

${name} Prints the value of macro name.

$=w prints the contents of the class macro w

/mx here.com Returns the MX records for here.com in the order they will be utilized

/parse foo Parses the value of the address foo, returns the value of crackaddr(), and the final parsed address including the delivery agent.

/try local foo Rewrites the address foo based on the rules for local delivery

/tryflags HS Sets the flags used by /parse and /try to H for header and S for sender, can also use E for envelope and R for recipient

/canon foo - Transforms the hostname foo into its canonical form

/map aliases foo Looks up foo in the aliases database

3,0 me@foo Runs the address me@foo through rulesets 3 and 0